Avid Copperfield himself that much being just too gullible and naive and I certainly didn t warm to the overly sweet and self sacrificing Esther in Bleak House That silent suffering felt almost like Dostoevsky and Dickens with his sense of humour and sharp eye for satire can t compete with the Russian master in the arena of suffering for the sake of honour it just doesn t match his joie de vivre Nicholas and his sister Kate are of a different calibre though Hotheaded rash confident they don t suffer in silence they SPEAK UPI loved that Losing your temper and speaking truth to power is so much rewarding in my world than silently suffering in your chamber crying little nseen tears over your Bom Dia, Brasil unfair fate while leaving it to others to fix your mess Nicholas and Kate and their friends are very independent honest thinkers and they deserve what they get because they are willing to fight for it and to work honestly to achieve happinessCheers to Nicholas and Kate Keep kicking and screamingI won t say anything now as I can feel the need to analyse each single character in depth to the boredom and annoyance of anyone who proceeds to read this far Read the book instead it is worth each minute spent on itDecember Dickens 2017 a blast Was there ever a novelist with a bigger heart than Charles Dickens This is the sixth Dickens book I ve read including the novella A Christmas Carol And like most of his other works it s expansive bursting with all manner of incident and life Some of that life mind you goes ON AND ON And a few scenes about social gracesmanners might need explaining to a contemporary reader But the overall effect if you ignore the repetition is absorbing and very satisfying Just as we binge watch the latest Netflix or Hulu series I can imagine Victorian readers binge reading the installments of this novel as they were published in the late 1830sAfter his father dies Nicholas his sister Kate and their mother are left penniless and at the mercy of the father s brother Ralph a miserly moneylender who s clearly possibly an early model for Ebenezer ScroogeRalph who hated his brother promptly separates the family and does the absolute minimum for his poor relations he sends Nicholas off to work in Yorkshire as an assistant to the loathsome Wackford Sueers who runs an abusive sham of a school for boys he sends Kate and her mother to live in a slum and arranges for Kate to work for a milliner Madame Mantalini and her no good hanger on husband Soon Nicholas and Ralph have a huge falling out and the family is cut off from any financial aid How will they survive What follows is an episodic narrative that includes forays into the theatre world no doubt drawing on Dickens s own experiences as an actor several businesses and shadowy corners of London lowlife This being a Dickens novel there are lots of coincidences some broad caricatures and a heavy social conscience especially around the plight of the poor and helpless Oddly enough while Nicholas and Kate Nickleby are thinly drawn goody goody characters their chattering mother leaps off the page with her humorous conjectures and genteel pronouncements Ralph and Sueers make fascinating contrasting villainsOther memorable characters include Ralph s clerk Newman Noggs who takes a shine to the Nicklebys Lord Frederick Verisopht say the surname aloud and Sir Mulberry Hawk two of Ralph s slimy business associates Miss La Creevy a miniature portrait painter all of the lively actors involved in the travelling theatre troupe run by Vincent Crummles John Browdie a simple but warm hearted Yorkshireman who might bring to mind Great Expectations Joe Gargery And then there s the pathetic friendless sad sack Smike whom Nicholas meets and befriends at Sueers school He s one of those idealized sentimentalized characters found only in Dickens novels It s a littlenfair to judge an early Dickens novel his third written when he was in his 20s against his later works particularly masterpieces like David Copperfield and Great Expectations These later books were carefully structured and I don t recall sighing and wanting to get through any passages the way I did with this book There s one story within a story set in a tavern that practically stops the novel in its tracksBut even though I pretty much knew where the novel was going I d seen the two part stage adaptation years ago Dickens still made me laugh cry and gasp at certain passages More than most major English novelists except perhaps DH Lawrence Dickens was familiar with poverty and the lower classes and that gave him lots of knowledge about the human condition the vanity fair that makes p life now and nearly 200 years ago I m glad that Classics Corner at Constant Reader elected to read NN for its April book as I ve intended for a while to return to my goal of reading as many of Dickens books as possible over time And I was not disappointed with this book While not as developed as later works it introduces familiar themes settings character types etcfurther review to come Peter Ackroyd in his ground breaking biography of Charles Dickens says that Nicholas Nickleby is perhaps the funniest novel in the English language The complete title of the novel is perhaps a bit of a mouthful The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby containing a Faithful Account of the Fortunes Misfortunes Uprisings Downfallings and Complete Career of the Nickleby FamilyIt was published as his previous novels had been in monthly installments between 1838 and 1839 and the last part was again a double issue Whilst Dickens was writing this he was between 26 and 27 years of age and also putting the final touches to his enormously successful Oliver Twist Some of the plot elements and Dickens s social criticisms are very much in the vein of Oliver Twist Yet in many ways the novel is similar to his first installment novel The Pickwick Papers It has a comic rather than a tragic feel and is certainly lightweight and humorous than Oliver Twist It could be classed as ironic social satire pointing p social injustices while full of Dickens s taste for absurdityThe picaresue style of The Pickwick Papers recalls very much the earlier 18th century fashion for vignettes such as those written by Henry Fielding Although Nicholas Nickleby is held together by a continuing saga it is still very episodic subject to shifts in focus and with such a wealth of characters and subplots that the main thrust of the novel occasionally seems to be lost However this episodic feel was still a very popular style of the time When it was published the book was an immediate success further establishing Dickens s reputation Indeed an engraving of one of the most famous portraits of Dickens is Broken Wings (Hidden Wings, used as the frontispiece and is called the Nickleby Portrait Charles Dickens sat for this portrait in June 1839 partway through the serialisation of the novel It was by the artist Daniel Maclise and had been commissioned by Dickens s publishers Chapman and Hall Nicholas Nickleby is typical of many early English novels being focused on one person s life and as such is of a fictional biography than being especially plot driven Unlike his preceding novel Oliver Twist the title character of this is already a young man with family responsibilities at the start of the novel His future is veryncertain due to the death of his father who had made some poor investments The readers sees that the major conflict in this novel is going to be the struggle of a small family to make their way in the world after suffering a tragic loss To some extent this is autobiographical The Nickleby family are genteel but impoverished Dickens s own personal struggles and experiences as a young man were similar since his father had also forfeited his gentility because of financial incompetence In Nicholas Nickleby we are introduced to the protagonist s The Dark Villages of Childhood uncle Ralph Nickleby very near the beginning As soon as Ralph comes on the scene we realise this will add spice to the situation For what a miserable old skinflint he is there was something in his very wrinkles and in his cold restless eye which seemed to tell of cunning that would announce itself in spite of himRalph takes against Nicholas right from the start apparently purely based on envy because Nicholas is young bright and open At this point we realise he is destined to be Nicholas s antagonist And the warning bells begin to ring when we are told that Ralph Nickleby isnscrupulous in his financial dealings because Nicholas has turned to his ncle for assistance hoping for support for his mother and sister after the death of his father Very ickly then we identify Ralph as the villain of the piece And Dickens gives full rein to his talent for inventing over the top characters who stay in the mind far longer than the details of the story itself Who can forget the grotesue headmaster Wackford Sueers with his one eye when the popular prejudice is in favour of twoOr Mrs Nickleby with her rapid barrage of discursions which would put Mrs Bennet of Austen s Pride and Prejudice to shame Or the kindly generous benefactors the Cheeryble brothers Charles and Ned who have built a thriving business on treating others with respect and compassion They address each other as my dear fellow and not only look and act alike but also dress alike and wear white hats As well as the main characters there are a myriad of minor eccentric ch. 1930s presented the writing of the foremost English novelist in its most distinguished format Upon its original publication the set was hailed as one of the most glorious publishing achievements of our time Now the peerless Nonesuch standards have been revived in new editions of Dickens' most beloved works introducing a new generation of readers to these masterpieces of literature illustration and book designThe Nonesuch Press was founded in London by Francis Meynell in 1923 Applying 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The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby Charles DickensThe novel centers on the life and adventures of Nicholas Nickleby a young man who must support his mother and sister after his father dies Nicholas Nickleby s father dies Asylum and Other Stories unexpectedly after losing all of his money in a poor investment Nicholas his mother and his younger sister Kate are forced to givep their comfortable lifestyle in Devonshire and travel to London to seek the aid of their only relative Nicholas s Banana Fish, Tome 14 : uncle Ralph Nickleby Ralph a cold and ruthless businessman has no desire to help his destitute relations and hates Nicholas who reminds him of his dead brother on sight He gets Nicholas a low paying job as an assistant to Wackford Sueers who runs the school Dotheboys Hall in Yorkshire Nicholas is initially wary of Sueers a verynpleasant man with one eye because he is gruff and violent towards his young charges but he tries to ell his suspicions As Nicholas boards the stagecoach for Greta Bridge he is handed a letter by Ralph s clerk Newman Noggs A once wealthy businessman Noggs lost his fortune became a drunk and had no other recourse but to seek employment with Ralph whom he loathes The letter expresses concern for him as an innocent young man and offers assistance if Nicholas ever reuires it Once he arrives in Yorkshire Nicholas comes to realise that Sueers is running a scam he takes in nwanted children most of whom are illegitimate crippled or deformed for a high fee and starves and mistreats them while Nuestra propuesta inconclusa. Ecuador-Perú using the money sent by their parents who only want to get them out of their way to pad his own pockets Sueers and his monstrous wife whip and beat the children regularly while spoiling their own son Lessons are no better they show how poorly educated Sueers himself is and heses the lessons as excuses to send the boys off on chores While he is there Nicholas befriends a simple boy named Smike who is older than the other students and now acts as an The Volleyball Coaching Bible - Volume II (The Volleyball Coaching Bible, unpaid servant Nicholas attracts the attention of Fanny Sueers his employer s plain and shrewish daughter who deludes herself into thinking that Nicholas is in love with her She attempts to disclose her affections during a game of cards but Nicholas doesn t catch her meaning Instead he endsp flirting with her friend Tilda Price to the consternation of both Fanny and Tilda s friendly but crude mannered fianc John Browdie After being accosted by Fanny again Nicholas bluntly tells her he does not return her affections and wishes to be free of the horrible atmosphere of Dotheboys Hall earning her enmity 2010 1376 116 964471301 19 1388 137 9789643695255 1380 139 9649301011 No dark sarcasm in the classroom If you don t eat your meat you can t have any puddingPink Floyd Another Brick in the Wall Pt 2I delight in Dickens class humorsocial satire and irony Nicholas Nickleby was his third novel right after Oliver Twist This novel is lighter than Twist but nearly as influential in pressuring changes to English society in the mid 1800s Here Dickens target was an abusive all male boarding school in Yorkshire In researching for this novel Dickens made visits to this school and based his villainous schoolmaster Wackford Sueers on the Yorkshire master William Shaw who was apparently one brutally cruel son of a bitchOther memorable character names include Newman Noggs clerk to Nickleby s awful Uncle Ralph Nickelby Miss Knag Miss Wittiterly and Lord Frederick Verisopht who is killed in a duel with another of British nobility This included the first romance written by Dickens though it fell considerably short of the one he wrote for David Copperfield In sum I enjoyed it but found the story didn t flow as well as some of his later novels Well fan my brow I ve been wandering around this world for years telling anyone who will listen that my favourite Dickens novel is David Copperfield with conviction which cannot be rivalled I m all a flutter now Nickleby has come along and knocked Copperfield from the top spotWhat an absolute triumph this novel is All of my favourite Dickens staples are firmly present Victorian social customs comedy villains tragedy debtors and drunks There s plenty of heartbreak and injustice peppered with Dickens own brand of humour to lighten the mood to the perfect degreeThere is a lot of plot I repeat there is a lot of plot Dickens goes into tiny detail on setting atmosphere and behaviour creating a beautifully vivid and engaging picture of Victorian London It feels very deep and heavy at times this only added to my enjoyment but I spent much longer on this book than I have on any other for a while savouring relishing lovingHis techniue in presenting the reader with social injustices is gorgeous Laced with satire we see our misers and villains gaining the Diccionario trilingüe Miskitu - Sumu-Mayangna - Español upper hand at every turn we are scandalised devastated incensed But we remember it s Dickens and each and every dastardly character will have his day in the end Real life doesn t serve justiceite so perfectly but anything else here would be an injuryDespite this Dickens characters here were nothing simple Such a throng of a cast each of them described to completeness every flaw and scar exposed Dickens often characterises his characters as entirely good or bad placing them into their relevant camps as appropriate Here he recognises the range of emotion and temper in his characters and we even see the sueaky clean ones make poor decisions and display emotion not The Very First Christmas Stocking the Gifts of the 7 Coins usually attributed to the characters in the angelic of the two campsIt gave my joy it broke my heart The characters are masterpieces within themselves the plot divine everything else just gorgeous gorgeous Nicholas Nickleby is an absolute wonder Reading Dickens is like taking a deep breath of air feeling life in its most vivid formBeing completely faithless and illoyal I will now dump all previous Dickens novels and claim with brutal inconsistency that Nicholas Nickleby is my favourite Yes I know I have said it before and I am likely to say it again knowing human nature in its most Dickensian expressions But Nicholas really is my Now Time Favourite I should like to state my case as it would be veryn Dickensian of me not to indulge in a long explanation of my way of thinking on the subject especially as it is a tricky situation claiming a favourite child among so many Dickens knows where that favouritism can lead in real life having painted the effects of parenting in his most colourful charactersWhyFirst of all it is a social satire Well well well that is not an argument they all are Agree but this one touches on the virtues and vices not only of the Victorian society it describes but of human family relations and business endeavours in general We will still find plenty of schoolmasters making a profit of parents neglect or gullibility and those contemporary school masters will be infinitely better at marketing their fraud with pretty business phrases of the educational genre than the odious Mr Sueers We will still find misers of Uncle Scrooge s calibre just like Ralph Nickleby all the realistic for not Twisted (LOST, undergoing the magical Christmassy transformation of his later double We will find posers and cruisers who live off their social status filling their days with vanities and sexual assaults on women who are too poor and neglected to protect themselves against the shamelessness of complete entitlement Mulberry your downfall made me SMILE Dickens strong sense of social injustice is like therapy for my tortured heart and I don t mind at all that it isite improbable that all the good hardworking caring characters have their reward in the end Nobody knew better than Dickens that real life doesn t play fair at any time But he also knew what a relief it is to feel for once in literature that AMOR VINCIT OMNIA how much injustice misery and wrong there was and yet how the world rolled on from year to year alike careless and indifferent and no man seeking to remedy or redress it when he thought of all this and selected from the mass the one slight case on which his thoughts were bent he felt indeed that there was little ground for hope and little reason why it should not form an atom in the huge aggregate of distress and sorrow and add one small and nimportant nit to swell the great amount And yet Dickens goes on to show that giving Pirate Barbarian up is not an option and that the atom of sorrow that one individual feels is worthy of the great author s attention and he gives harsh reality a fictional poetical justice that being all he can do It is than nothing decidedlySo do I need any other arguments The one I chose doesn t seem to make Nicholas Nickleby stand out beside Bleak House David Copperfield Martin Chuzzlewit Great Expectations and all the other former all time favourite Dickenses So what was so refreshing this time around The bad characters were what I expected shown in their malice sly greed and comical evil The huge cast of funny supporting characters were euipped with thesual amount of burlesue humour and they were ranging from circus actors to owners of small businesses showing the diversity in which family vanities can express themselves for good and for bad Nothing A Fearless Heart : Why Compassion is the Key to Greater Wellbeing unexpected there just good old Dickensian performanceThe difference lies in the good main characters The minor complaint I had regarding other Dickens novels was my lack of bonding with the too good to be true lead protagonists I didn t like Dickens' genius for creating eccentric yet entirely captivating characters found its fullest expression in his third novel Nicholas Nickleby published in 1839 The ebullient narrative follows Nicholas as he escapes from the influence of his villainousncle and the wicked schoolmaster Wackford Sueers stumbles into a theatrical career and pursues his fortune through numerous adventures This Nonesuch edition features the author's final text and the illustrations Dickens himself selected to complement his wordsThe Legendary Nonesuch Dickens issued in the.
Aracters in this novel all of whom are a delight Blink and you may miss them The Crummles s family of actors with their daughter Ninette the starry Infant Phenomenon who at the age of ten had been precisely the same age not perhaps to the full extent of the memory of the oldest inhabitant but certainly for five good years But she had been kept Soap Making Bible up late every night and putpon an Tewasnya Dewa Iblis Awan Api (Long Hu Men The Next Level 01) unlimited allowance of gin and water from infancy to prevent her growing tall and perhaps this system of training had produced in the infant phenomenon these additional phenomenaThe other actorsnsurprisingly were none too keen on her privileged position The leading man Mr Folair termed her the Infernal Phenomenon Then there is Mrs Mantalini the astute business woman who owns a dressmaking and millinery shop for whom Nicholas s sister Kate is sent to work as a seamstress and her husband a foppish fellow with extravagent tastes given to histrionics and repeated attempts to kill himself There is the fun loving but Red Now and Laters ultimately self seeking Kenwigs family the revolting lusting scheming old man Arthur Gride denounced as a wretch and a villain and the dastardly nobleman whom we all want to boo Sir Mulberry Hawk The names too are typical Dickens whimsy chosen with an eye to amuse and appeal Dotheboys Hall the vile school where the boys were well and truly done to with Wackford Sueers as its headmaster overkeen on whacking his pupils Miss Knag the spiteful forewoman of the dressmakers and milliners There is Lord Frederick Verisoft soft of brain weak and silly his friend the Honourable Mr Snobb and Sir Mulberry Hawk the most knowing card in the pack who treats everyone including his friends as his prey The Cheeryble brothers now who can read their name without smiling Mrs Wititterly who seems to witter a lot and has an air of sweet insipidity There is such a superfluity of names some in characters who shine brightly for a paragraph or two and then disappear without trace There is Mr Crowl whotters a low Chance Encounter uerulous growl and perhaps the best of the lot Sir Tumley Snuffim who is perhaps not such a good doctor if his patients snuff itAll the episodes with these larger than life characters seem tailor made for the stage Many of the speeches seem to cry out for an actor s ringing declamation on stage in a 19th century melodrama Nicholas s way of talking is very stilted and sadly this stiff formal kind of language sometimes does alienate the modern reader such as this a simple acuiescence It s not in my nature to resist any entreaty The third book of Charles Dickens Nicholas Nickleby has some marked differences from the other Dickens books I ve read Except Oliver Twist which I ve read as a teen I haven t read any early work by Dickens a work written in his youth So Nicholas Nickleby was a welcoming change and an opportunity to see a different side of Dickens The original title The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby pretty well sumsp the story Yes it is about Nicholas an honest trusting good natured and good hearted youth who is thrown at the mercy of the world with his father s NodeMCU ESP8266 Communication Methods and Protocols : Programming with Arduino IDE untimely death With the care of his mother and sister weighing heavilypon him and with no sincere help from his Rabbit Wishes usurerncle he struggles to find his way in the world and to raise himself from sheer poverty to respectability Nicholas is one interesting hero of Dickens and Cloudwish (The Six Impossiverse uite different from any other Dickensian hero I ve come across He is strong minded courageous and persevering He is governed by a strong sense of duty and justice His nature is such that fiercely arouse at injustice cruelty and wickedness At such times one can say the young hero is impetuousick tempered and even violent These contrary character traits make Nicholas one of Dickens s chivalrous and colourful heroesAside from Nicholas we meet Split Second Choice uite an interesting set of characters both male and female Of them some are good kind and helpful some are wicked and greedy and some silly and vain Dickens is very fond ofsing many different characters in his books and in each of them he never fails to present the readers with some memorable ones And Nicholas Nickleby too makes a few contributions to that lot It was a prevalent idea that Dickens didn t create strong female characters in his early works and that they came only in his later mature ones But Nicholas Nickleby effectually silences this misconception with Kate Nickleby Nicholas s brave little sister who is one strong female character that we ll hold dear Nicholas Nickleby shows a marked difference from his later works This difference stems out from his style of writing It is youthful exuberant action packed and dramatic It has the sual Dickensian satire but not the depth and gravity that graced his later work Dickens was himself a youth when he wrote this so a lot of youthful energy is poured into the story and the character of Nicholas This style of Dickens which I m not ite acuainted with was very pleasing It made the reading light and easy despite his inherent verbosity This is another great creation of Charles Dickens Reading it was a fascinating experience The I read Dickens the I nderstand why he is revered over the centuries I never gave much thought to Dickens s position as the most outstanding Victorian author before But I m slowly on the way to form the same opinion myself When the name of the cruel schoolmaster is Wackford Sueers you just know it s going to be good Nicholas himself can sometimes be a bit prissy but this serves well as a foil for the many extreme characters that surround him and he s a lot feisty than the relatively miluetoast David Copperfield This is classic Dickens at the height of his powers My generic comment about Charles DickensFirst of all although I am a partisan of Dickens writing and have read and relished most his works I concede to three flaws in his oeuvre that are not insignificant First while he seemed to develop an almost endless variety of male social types his female characters are much less well developed Second although he portrayed the stark brutality of economic and class ineuality with nparalleled clarity his diagnosis of what needs to be done is flaccidly liberal suggesting that the wealthy should simply be nicer and generous to the pooryet his writings did propi I m really not sure why I like Dickens so much He is predictable there will be coincidences that could never happen in the real world and in the end everyone will get their just deserts except for the poor sad creature who is destined to see heaven ahead of his time Ah but he does it with so much style and panache He creates characters you are seldom ambivalent about dastardly villains you can feel no compassion for and good people who restore your faith in humanityIn Nicholas Nickleby as in all his novels Dickens has a full grasp of the class system of his time and the conditions of the poor He never fails to illustrate that money brings its own Moving Neutral (Moving Neutral, unhappiness for some and that true value is found in character and dignity devotion and love When a Dickens character is at the mercy of the world you can bet he will see the worst and best sides of humanity rearing their headsNicholas Nickleby has its share of Dickens humor as well Mrs Nickleby is a bit of a buffoon who is saved from herself by the good sense of her children I will admit that there are times when she is almost too much There is Newman Noggs who is sure to remain a favorite for me because he is good without any obligation to be so He gives from a position in which there is very little to be given and made me chuckle than once when snipping at the horrible Uncle Ralph I dare say most ofs would hoard our coins and protect our position in Nogg s situation and yet he puts his neck and meager fortune on the line for friendshipWe should all like to think that somewhere in our world there are people like Charles and Ned Cheeryble They live Switches and Circuits up to their names for no two cheerier people could there be in this world and they certainly spread the cheer everywhere They seem to be proof that goodness is its own rewardAnother thing I love about Dickens his ability to touchpon the thin divide between our world and that of the departed It is an exuisite and beautiful thing in our nature that when the heart is touched and softened by some tranuil happiness or affectionate feeling the memory of the dead comes over it most powerfully and irresistibly I t would almost seem as though our better thoughts and sympathies were charms in virtue of which the soul is enable to hold some vague and mysterious intercourse with the spirits of those whom we dearly loved in life I found this observation remarkably accurateI have discovered that reading Dickens slowly brings out the best in his writing I languished over his descriptions of people and places and took my time over his hilarious conversations If you pay close attention you can see 1840s London through his eyes The lessons of his time are the lesson of today where so many seem to think money and possessions outweigh personal connections and love of humanity It is good for the soul to read DickensUp next some Christmas stories and the annual reading of A Christmas Carol Next year I am planning to fit in three Dickens novels Hard Times Little Dorrit and Pickwick Papers It is going slowly but that is fine since it means there will be Dickens yet to come for a long long tim. Rcial publishing Nonesuch books were among the most elegant and treasured volumes produced in the first half of the twentieth century The fabled Nonesuch Dickens was the Press' most ambitious project treasured both for its ality and its rarity only 877 twenty four volume sets were issued and complete original sets have sold recently at auction for than 30000Employing modern printing technology seven decades later each book in the revived Nonesuch Dickens replicates the enduring editorial and design excellence of its inspiration at an affordable price.
George Orwell and G K Chesterton—for its realism comedy prose style uniue characterisations and social criticism On the other hand Oscar Wilde Henry James and Virginia Woolf complained of a lack of psychological depth loose writing and a vein of saccharine sentimentalism The term Dickensian is used to describe something that is reminiscent of Dickens and his writings such as poor social conditions or comically repulsive charactersOn 8 June 1870 Dickens suffered another stroke at his home after a full day's work on Edwin Drood He never regained consciousness and the next day he died at Gad's Hill Place Contrary to his wish to be buried at Rochester Cathedral in an inexpensive unostentatious and strictly private manner he was laid to rest in the Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey A printed epitaph circulated at the time of the funeral reads To the Memory of Charles Dickens England's most popular author who died at his residence Higham near Rochester Kent 9 June 1870 aged 58 years He was a sympathiser with the poor the suffering and the oppressed; and by his death one of England's greatest writers is lost to the world His last words were On the ground in response to his sister in law Georgina's reuest that he lie downfrom Wikipedia